일본은 오늘날과 비슷한 TV기술을 1926년 크리스마스날 시연했다. 흔적만 남겼을 뿐 국제공인을 받지 못했다. 특허출원을 하지 않은 탓이다. 특허 인식이 희박하던 환경적 영향이었다.

서양인들은 일찌감치 특허에 눈떴다. 기원전 500년쯤 오늘날 이탈리아 남부에 해당하는 그리스 도시 시바리스에서 특허개념이 도입된 기록이 있다. 1421년에는 이탈리아 아르노강에서 대리석을 운반하기 위해 건조된 바지선이 특허인증됐다. 오늘날에는 미국이 가장 많은 특허권을 보유하고 있다. 세계 특허출원 건수는 1970년대까지 완만한 성장세를 보이다가 1990년대부터 폭증했다. 컴퓨터 보급시기와 일치한다.



발명가(또는 저작자)의 아이디어를 무단 사용하는 것을 제한하기 위해 도입된 권리가 기업의 생사여탈권을 쥐게 됐다. 독점권의 폐해가 발생하지 않을 리 없다. 네덜란드는 부작용 때문에 1869년 특허제도를 폐지했다. 그랬다가 1912년에 재도입했다.

반대론자들은 구체적 수치를 들이댄다. 제임스 베센 미 보스턴대 교수는 특허소송 비용이 화학·제약 분야를 제외한 모든 산업의 투자가치보다 크다고 주장했다. 소프트웨어 산업에서는 특허소송 비용이 투자가치의 두 배라고 했다. 요즘 미국 변호사들을 먹여살리는 게 삼성과 애플의 분쟁이라는 미 언론 보도도 있다.

미 법원은 삼성과 애플의 특허전쟁을 말리고 나섰다. 담당판사는 “글로벌 평화”를 언급했다. 그만큼 분쟁의 결과가 어느 한쪽에 치명적일 수 있다는 의미이다. 미 특허청은 애플창업자 스티브 잡스가 자랑하던 ‘바운스백’ ‘터치스크린’ 기술에 대해 특허무효판단을 내렸다. 평화가 깃들 여지를 만든 셈이다.

그렇지만 정글의 법칙에 익숙한 글로벌기업들에는 마이동풍이다. 파산 위기에 처한 코닥의 사진기술을 손에 넣기 위해 애플과 구글이 각각 컨소시엄을 구성해 전쟁 중이다. 어제의 적이었던 마이크로소프트가 애플과 손잡았다. 구글 컨소시엄에는 삼성 LG HTC가 포함됐다. 1000여개 이미지 특허가격은 최소 5억달러. 세계는 열전, 냉전을 거쳐 이제 뇌전(腦戰)을 치르는 중이다. 이 전쟁의 승자, 패자는 글로벌기업과 그 구성원이다.

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